This article – the work of local lore, writer and author of articles in the newspaper “Shalom Aleichem” George Barenboim. It is located on the site Gorodok Central Regional Library, where it is possible to link to the article. Materials for writing were provided by an employee of HBF “Hesed Besht” Omelchenko Raysoy. Article widely and colorfully reveals to us the history of the Jewish Community Campus, in which we offer to plunge immediately!
about the author. Barenboim George B. - radical gorodochchanin, public figure, encyclopedic educated, with higher engineering education. One of the brightest representatives of the engineering and technical elite Gorodochchiny and hem, which is created and increased its industrial potential of the region in the postwar period. On the professional achievements demonstrated by the fact, that the portrait of George Borisovich than once graced not only the Honor Board native Gorodoksky sugar factory, but the district. Twice elected deputy of the regional council. Society activist, culture development, sports city and region. patriot Township, labor collective of the enterprise, where he spent his formation from engineer to technical director of the plant. Kindness, sensitivity to the people made him an authoritative and respected person, whose opinion is heeded. Until now, George B., as the saying goes, the soul of any company. Many consider it the custodian of the history and traditions of one of the largest sugar companies Hmelnichchiny. Therefore, he has many friends themselves of different nationalities - Ukrainians, Poles , the Jews ... when the opportunity likes to give them their humorous and very precisely reflecting the character of a friend, friend. to him for 70. But, as the song goes, "I'm on the road ..., On my way". Reads a lot, It explores the history of the Jewish communities in the province, their ancestry, communicating with different people, an active member of the Khmelnytsky Oblast of the Jewish community "Hesed Besht". His local history publications were published in the literary- journalistic collection "Shtetl" (2013), and then the extended version in Gorodok regional newspaper "News of Gorodotsky" .Imenno this option and offers the reader.
From handicraft ...
Our land is healing the wounds, caused her the Tartar hordes. Knyazhye here in the fourteenth century, Lithuania. And 1430 g. Podolia was under the rule of the Kingdom of Poland.
The town received its name during the time of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Fyodor Koriatovych, who passed a few settlements on the rivers and Smotrych Trostyanets "servitor" Bedrich. Bedrich built town (city), hence the name - Bedrichov Town. The acts of the XV century settlement is found under the names gmina gródek, Lumps and Novodvor, from 1530 g. - Township. by the way, in the second half of the XV century. one of the members of the genus Bedrichov - Nikolai (first Kamenetskiy Castellan), referred to as the owner Ploskirova (Proskuriv). Castellan - the administrator of the castle, fortress, responsible for safety, defense, sum podatey and Features. Even in those days ethnically specific part of the middle class were Jews. The bulk of the Jewish population appears in Podolia in the XV century. If we take into account the size of the Jewish cemetery in town and Satanov, then it is safe to assume, that the Jews were in them since their inception.
IN 1550 by Turkish janissaries completely destroyed the town, They destroyed and taken into slavery a significant amount of its population.
FROM 1578 , the town owned by tycoons Zamoyski, who worked 28 artisans, including 13 locksmiths, 3 cutter, smiths, каланы (traders honey and beer). Zamoyski borough owned almost to the end of the eighteenth century.
The end of the XVIII century was a turning point for skirts in general, and in particular the Borough. After the third division of Volyn (1795 city) territory Right-bank Ukraine to Russia withdrew Zbruch, and the town became a district center of Podolsky governorship.
local producers, keeping the tradition of the former handicraft corporations, waged a stubborn struggle with the owners of the village shop for the preservation of rights. So, in 1834 g. Christian and Jewish artisans pottery, clothing, weaving and furrier shops complained about the violation of the rights of the owner of the handicraft village of Baroness Geismar. Their struggle for their rights is due to the age-old tradition of the guild system in the city. Jews in town were busy with a variety of chores: farming and renting estates, sugar refining, beer- and modovareniem, milled flour, were cabbies, prikazchikami. A special place is occupied by trade - Pitney, Krämerbrücke, wholesale, meat, forest and other. Not many, not a little - 65 % of all craftsmen were Jews.
It is known, that at the beginning of the XIX century. Township worked in a tobacco factory, quality products which were not worse overseas.
IN 1841 g. the certificate on the right to engage in the jewelry profession obtained several master pieces of silver, all of them were Jews. Coming to the plant mass of Jewish craftsmen - silversmiths and the goldsmith - gave the guild system Podolia "second wind". And it has made it possible to arrange the Baroness Geismar plant in the town of gilding and painting porcelain pieces, which are specially imported from Carlsbad and Prague.
... Prior to the plants
The most profitable business of the town was a sugar factory , built in 1839 g. Baron Heysmarom, General of Cavalry, heir to the ancient German baronial kind, son of the chamberlain of the Prussian court. The cost of the sugar refinery production was higher than the cost of all factory production province - 60 thousand year.
Substantial profits in sugar factories were Jewish merchants. They supplied the plant with wood, lime, kostyanыm uhlёm, cloth and other. Jewish merchants were engaged in speculative operations on the sugar delivered to refineries, funded the production of a significant interest (Now it is called investment). Sometimes Jews - brokers supplying workers in sugar mills and have a percentage of their earnings.
IN 1870 g. The partnership was created shareholders "Town", which 1871 g. bought from the bankrupt sugar factory Baroness Geismar. On the future success of the enterprise says the award of the World Exhibition in Paris (1889 year), which was awarded for its high quality products Gorodok saharovarov.
Here is a list of Jews - permanent sluzhaschihGorodotskogo sugar factory (1919 year): Maranci G.M., Kalmenson IL, Kepelman FM, Vignanker A.A., Shuhhalter U.L., Berkovich YA.H, Klein EF, Galyperin SH.M., Averbukh MF, Kreis IM, Temple VD, Grosman Ì.Î., M. Katz, Hershkowitz IB, Rafalovich ID, Melman, Landry, Waxman, Bronshteyn, Usman, Nirenberchik GD.
IN 1924 Gorodotsky year sugar refinery, which employed 1200 workers, produced 600 thousand pounds of granulated sugar (9600 tonnes).
IN 1894 g. along with the sugar factory to work in the town 6 brick, 2 tile, 4 pottery, 10 kojevennıh, 1 cable, 2 candle-wax plant, sparkling water plant, 7 kruporušek, 6 forges, 2 Straw horse, 3 Voskoboynik. there was also a small brewery, Baba belonged Katz, leased Ita Zilberman.
At the end of the XIX century was the center of Gorodok town parish and belonged to Sergei Winogradsky, eminent microbiologist, ecology foundermicroorganisms and soil microbiology, - first-magnitude star in the world of microbiological science together with Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch and. After research activities in St. Petersburg, Strasbourg, Paris and Zurich, he settles for health in the Borough, which deals with the problems of agriculture and soil science.
At that time, a place has been one of the most industrialized in the region, Although there lived only about 8 thousands of people. While in town functioned diabetes, cast-iron foundry and mechanical plant (Director Efimov A.A.), and 4 Roller mill water (tenants Mordko Mendelblag and Freeman Greenberg).
IN 1895 in the town worked dentist Matus Mendelevich Oxman, and practitioner Vladimir Davidovich Temple.
Documents 1907 year give us the following information:
of merchants and industrialists Township:
- pharmaceutical goods - Nyman PI, Blinder Shmuel, Gershman Gersh;
- bakaleya - equipment - Hawa Shyher, Beygelman Dvoyra, Joseph Gelman, Shrayberman Srul;
- iron - Silberman IM;
- gold and silver - Rabinovich Kh.Sh.;
- Book - Sarah Garber;
- photo - Katya Irlih, Leybman Wolken;
- wine - Volʹfcun Inda, Goldfarb Hytlya;
- leather goods - Schwartz Mote;
- lumberyard - tchotchke Itsko;
- manufactures - Gal'perin Hava, Grinboym Ovshy, Dantsys Bale, Katz Shulim, Shuhhalter Ruhlya,
- sewing machines - Felshtiner Haim.
According to the industrial potential indicators, the number of enterprises and the number of working for them in 1909 g. The town is served 4 in the province, ahead of the provincial town of Kamenetz-Podolsk, county-level city Balta, Letichev, lithium, new Ushytsya, Yampil, Braclav, Olhopil.
At the turn of epochs
In the early twentieth century, the town was: one Orthodox Church, Kostel, two synagogues (stone and wood), six Jewish houses of worship, Catholic chapel, Orthodox, Catholic and Jewish cemeteries. by the way, synagogue or "shrine" town meet as religious, so secular needs of the community. The synagogue was always going to court congregations. Sometimes the synagogue served as a shelter for wandering fellow.
The ethnic composition of the population was Township Jewish community over 36%, second only to the Polish (48%).A bit more 15 % residents were Ukrainians. All in all, there were Township 6980 people of different nationalities and religions. Need to mark, what, according to Russian laws, Jews have always belonged to the urban classes. More 65 % Gorodok all craftsmen were Jews. The funds of the state archives kept lists of names of employees, permanent masters, attendants and workers Gorodoksky sugar factory and the local postal telegraph station for 1919 year. It was not great work to establish, eg, the ethnic composition of the sugar factory workers. In particular, if in a working environment dominated by Poles and Ukrainians in numbers, then among the employees - Jews (62%). An active political events in town beginning of XX century, to which was the Jewish population, following facts, gleaned from archival sources.
In the first days of October revolution in town with clearly defined vlastyu.Uzhe in March 1917 the representatives of all social classes, democratic organizations, various political parties united in one small-town executive committee. Even delegate three representatives to the Council of public organizations in the Kamenetz district commissars of the Provisional Government.
The ethnic balance of the town will be displayed on the results of elections to the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly, which took place in town 31 January 1918 of the year. Second place after the Podolsk district of the Polish list (1505 votes) He won the Jewish National Election Committee, who supported 830 gorodochchan, Bund -165 of voters, United Jewish Socialist Party - 3, Jewish Social-Democratic Labor Party - 1 vote.
In those days it was Ukrainian authorities to facilitate the development of a broad government of national minorities. So, Gorodok Jewish community (EO) It held its elections in the first half 1918 of the year. Next year, in October, the election of new members of the EO already. The Jews supported the initiative of the town Kamenetz EO, which was the highest in the liberated territory of Ukraine (second half 1919 of the year), the convening of the All-Ukrainian Congress of the Jewish community councils.
Was freedom of political parties natsmenshin. For example, 1 December 1917 , the Zionists held in town staging the play on religious themes. About it in the newspaper "Volkszeitung" wrote the Bund.
The exception was the period Hetmanate. In September 1918 years for belonging to the Bund detained residents of the town Hershko Sable and David Grinboyma. by the way, Bund organization functioned at the local Zionist school, which led to its closure.
It should be emphasized, that the ratio in most of the Jewish community to the actions of the subject Oktyabrskaya perevorOta was ambiguous. So, in March 1919 , the Jewish population of the Borough has collected money and bought for Ukrainian soldiers 50 steam laundry. But after three months, 7 July ruzhyami local Jews were shooting from the windows and throwing bombs at the retreating back of the same Ukrainian military. During the investigation it was found, that most Jews supported the Bolsheviks and strongly opposed the establishment of an independent Ukrainian government. Natsmenshin public consciousness was not ready to perception of the Ukrainian idea. Often manifest open hostility. The reason for this became anti-Jewish excesses, riots , robbery, both on the part of the Ukrainian authorities, and the Bolsheviks. Here are some examples: 2-3 February 1918 of the year 165 Gorodok Jews robbed krasnoareytsami in the amount of 118246 rubles. For Hetmanat 4 guard inflicted damage I.Godlisu and his wife. Directories for two massacres committed Ukrainian warriors, and in June 1919 year on the Jewish population have imposed an indemnity. Moreover, 7 July vsledstvii bloody pogrom in Petliurists Township killed 9 Jewish.
Despite the mistakes, and even criminal actions of certain representatives of the Ukrainian government is trying to deal with riots and looting maroderstvom.Za shot 3 residents of the village. Such actions reinforce the confidence of the Jewish population in the government of UNR. Gorodok Jews asked to leave the Ukrainian military to protect the town from different gangs.
For Jewish communities outcome of the Civil War was a tragic. A lot of Jews killed, many children have been orphaned. Part of Jewish families emigrated. Almost all Jewish property was looted or destroyed. It was completely eliminated and the average major Jewish bourgeoisie, It undermined the basis of life and living conditions of artisans and small traders, which together accounted for the vast majority of the Jewish population. In such towns as the town 30-40 % Jewish population in general were unemployed.
IN 1921 in the town finally established Soviet power. Gradually rebuilt and developed industry. IN 1922 was launched local elektrostantsiyu. A sugar factory im.Chicherina October 1924 It has already worked 405 working, and the annual production of sugar reached 180 thousands Pudov (2880 tonnes).
Revived cultural and educational life. The first spark of enlightenment and culture in town was the hut reading room for adults, is in 1927 in a small house. In charge of the reading room Kleiman Isaac B. (grandfather of my wife). In the same year the first graduates Gorodok politshkoly among youth, first Komsomol. Most of them - representatives of the Jewish community of the town.
In the town in 1915 – 1920 respectively operated two Jewish schools: The Bund and the Zionist. Teaching subjects was conducted in Hebrew (IDIS). State money for the maintenance of schools did not allocate.
In December 1920 , the Jewish seven-year school in the state budget was created. IN 1927 year were educated in it 300 children 7 Group (for girls and Boys as a separate, and co). Eight teachers teach.
The establishment of Soviet power has brought some positive mutations both in the life of Jewish communities, but only on the basis of communist ideology. Jews opened the widest access to the public authorities, party organs, army and security service. It began flourishing of Jewish culture and education in Yiddish.
But it did not last long. Began the persecution of the Jewish culture, the persecution of religious Judaism and traditional Jewish education.
vague 30 - Tide sad years made further adjustments in people's lives , and in the life of national minorities village. In connection with the construction of socialism and the creation of a "new Soviet man" folded educational, Culture, religious sphere of ethnic communities. So, 12 January 1931 It was held a meeting of the village center of town citizens, which was attended by 176 human. The composition of the Bureau of the Assembly members: Kleiman Icek, Vdovohava Aron, Goldman Pearl, Solomon Suhshtaber, Shafir Hana, Cimbergo. listened to: the seizure of the Jewish religious community structure Synagogue "Zinkovskaya" a workshop for polytechnical Evsemiletney trudshkoly. acted: Kleiman J., G. Fiterman, A Anbroh. Absolute majority of the meeting satisfied the requirements evsemiletki.
To end 30 -ies in the village did not become synagogues. IN 1939 Jewish year, Polish, Ukrainian, and the children of other ethnic groups began studying in a public school ( Now Gorodok city grammar school).
These are the moments of the active Jewish life in town before the war.
shot the future
Came the Second World War. The first under attack once again hit the Jewish population of Nazi-occupied territories. From the first days of the war most of the male population of Jews Township was drafted into the Red Army. They heroically defended the Soviet Motherland in heavy fighting with Nazi Germany. Defending the land, they are, Unfortunately, They failed to protect their loved ones. With the mass evacuation of Jews into the country it was organized by the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, about what, oddly enough, was the order of Stalin. Were sick and those, who believed the Germans for the First World War loyal to the Jews.
Nazi troops occupied the town 8 iyulya1941 year. after, for the German army moved mobile so-called Einsatzgruppen. The purpose of these punitive special forces - massive physical destruction of unwanted population occupational regimes, and above all - the Jewish.
In the autumn 1941 Year Borough of Jews were deported to neighboring OCCUPIERS Yarmolyntsi. There, on the territory of the military unit, together with the civilian and prisoners of war were executed near 5 thousand people, - most of them Jews. Moreover, at the end of the year there have slain 48 Jewish children, captured during a raid in town. Here monument Requiem.
The mass executions in recent months 1942 It was held in the Township Witnesses said, both in the area of the brick factory of the dam on the carts were brought, and hundreds of people were shot in the sand quarry, including 191 Hebrew. IN 1990 Monument shot residents of the town - the memorial sign sugar factory workers in the sand pit was installed.
Along with horror, threat of death lived human compassion. How can we forget the righteous deeds ukraiskih world, just moms, that, yet it had the opportunity to, They sent their sons and daughters with the provisions in the ghetto, not to abstract the Jews, and to the neighbors or just people, who lived, to put it mildly, heavy. many cases, when Ukrainians were saving children and adults.
Family Bignyakov of a dipole Oleksinets picked up and saved from certain death a Jewish girl from Borough Nina Zharin (Spekman).That cold and terrible autumn night 1941 year, she managed to escape from the concentration camp Yarmolinetskogo. boss, unclothed, Hungry its first six months hiding in the cellar or shed, and then sheltered as his own daughter. Summer grazed domestic livestock, helped by hazyaystvu There she experienced a terrible time of war. Until the very last days of his life, she always remembered and helped her second
ukranskoy family. Do not forget this and her daughter Irina. Ethnic polka gorodochchanka Romuald Mazur ukrila from harm neighbor - a mother with a newborn baby girl in her arms, his father was a Jew while at the front. Such brave deeds in our town, in our region there were many.
As for the Jews, allegedly "ran to Tashkent", then throughout the war, When the order has not yet been sold at the market, Heroes of the Soviet Union began to 72 Jew, born in Ukraine, 27 It is awarded for the crossing of the Dnieper.
among those, who paid with their lives for the Great Victory - gorodochchane: Ambroh Ichilov Aronovich - Gorodok member of the anti-fascist underground organization, Barenboim Gregory Zindelevich, Barenboim Leo Zindelevich, Bronstein Hertz Haskslevich, Lev Bronstein Veniaminovich, Garber Israel Davidovich, Gershgorin Isaac Ihilevich, Gregory Katz Samoylovich, Kelmanovich Haskell Leibovich, Kotlyar Roh Berkovich, Kuziner Boris T., Yakov Lerner Eliseevich, Lucet David Abramovich, Rosenzweig Haim Abramovich, Soifer Frenkel, Fiterman Simon G., Shaferovich Boris I.. Eternal memory to them and thanks to generations. Here I want to quote the words of the famous Jerusalem Rabbi Adina Şteynzaltsa: "The Jews - a people, which can be broken into pieces, but these pieces will remain alive and grow again".
Together with other gorodochchanami poschastlivilos countrymen back home with victory and war veterans Jews. Among them, the participant of the Victory Parade in Moscow ordinary mortar Peter Fedorovich Omelchenko, Budapest, liberator and Vienna Guard Petty Officer Panzer Troops Vladimir Nahimovych Prilutsky, party Berlin operation scout, First Lieutenant Samuel Isaakovich Schuster, participant of the Second World War with 1939 by 1945 years, Isaac B. Kleiman combatants- regular officer Boris Zindelevich Barenboim (the author's father), Leonid Geyser, James Hunovich, Gregory Matveyevich Goldman ,Alexander Y. Vinkovetsky and other.
After the end of World War II in the town had been evacuated returned many Jews, as well as those, who remained alive in this horrible "meat grinder".
Among the post-war Jewish Borough known Schuster family, Schwartzman, Nudelman, Hoshey, Dubenko, Vaysblaev, Malamudov, Bitermanov, Kotlyarov, Groys,Rabinovich, Barenboim, Omelchenko, Dantsisov, Nisengoltsev, Weiner, Morgulis, Halperin, Kacov, green, Schenker, Averbukh, Fishman, Slurry, Kuzinerov, Goldman, Hunovichey, Biderov, Prylutskyh, Ambrohov, Elevicha, Seltzer, Yankelevich, geysers, Vynkovetskyh, Lahovski, Coenen, Creamer, Banasov, Staveckih, Zharinova, Kleymanovyh, Gumbergov, Lovov, Kelmanovichey and other.
The city can often be heard, especially on market days, words in Yiddish, as well as the Russian: "How do you go cap?», "Hryshkalэ, no ledges in cold water!», 'Kestelygizukt, zanamalhumy!"etc. All chickens, that Jews were purchased in the bazaars, We checked for quality by the "dutiya the drain", which caused considerable interest from other buyers. In Jewish homes were records by Alexandrovich and other Jewish singers. The holidays for the whole town from the windows of Jewish
Houses hear songs: "A Itsikochehasenegeat", 'Makhuteneste', Tumbalayke, «Small, Small avubisht! hop matentsely!». The holidays Jews smartly (possibly) dressed and walked through the city center. Ukrainians with respect and nostalgia for his friends, neighbors, and that there were good advisors, willing to help people, and talked: "Mykola for me to work on Saturday, and I for him - on Sunday ". Here is the opinion of Sergei Yefremov, great Ukrainian literary and cultural studies, expressed in the pamphlet "The Jewish business in Ukraine", published in the early twentieth century. he wrote: "The Jews, as we know, They live in very close contact with the Ukrainian people. It's not even the neighbors, like the majority of other nations, and one of the components of the population in the Ukrainian land ". Not by chance, even in the United States in the 20s of the last century Jewish immigrants from Ukraine, still stored in the memory of the terrible pictures of riots, it continued to consider themselves Ukrainian Jews and respect yourself for it.
Ukrainian and Polish local people well knew Yiddish, Jews , respectively, Ukrainian and Polish. All lived in harmony and mutual understanding.
During the five-year post-war town it became one of the most industrially developed district centers Khmelnitsky region. IN 1952 2nd year Gorodokski sugar factory was commissioned, a significant amount of equipment that has been put on reparations from Germany. FROM 1954 by 1988 chief engineer of the year, and then the director of the factory was a war veteran Vinkovetsky Alexander Y. . Under his leadership, the so-called "Vyborg Side" of the city was turned into a modern village with good infrastructure. community, built-up condominium, had central heating, hot and cold water, electric power supply, drains. The House of Culture was built on 500 places, water-mud baths with modern equipment, serving the population of the Borough, a children's garden with swimming pool, shopping center, gym with sauna, swimming pool, showers, stadium for team sports and activities easy and weightlifting, the podium, changing rooms and showers.
I will mention some more gorodochchan, have left an imprint in the economic development of the city. Shift supervisor 2nd Gorodoksky sugar factory was a veteran of World War II, one of the best managers Geyser Leonid plant, Chief of department of supply - a war veteran, human, enjoy great prestige in the team, – Баренбойм Борис Зинделевич, chief technology officer of the 1st Gorodoksky sugar factory was Lakhovsky Sophia Isaakovna; chemist, chemical water treatment - a recognized scholar - Treyger Dean Solomonovna. Old-timers remember the class specialists - engineers sugar factory Alexander Averbukh, Zusman, Weiner, Zylbermana, Teodorovich, Schenker Moiseevicha Isaac, Itkina Michael, Creamer Yakov Moiseevich, Lucet Nelli Davidovna etc..
During the five-year post-war reconstruction Gorodok Machine-Tool Plant was made, a significant portion of the product which is exported. Chief of the tool shop of the plant was a veteran of World War II, Commander of the Order of Glory Prilutsky Vladimir Nakhimovich.
Chairman Gorodoksky farm named after Zhdanov, one of the strongest agricultural region, Yakov Hunovich, veteran, awarded many military awards. His son - Roman Hunovich - a long period of supervised Khmelnitsky plant "Thermoplastic", He was a member of the Regional Council of People's Deputies. The entire area was known surname Goldmann Gregory Matveyevich, war veteran, Lost in her entire family, a long time head of the tank farm of Gorodok. Here the chief accountant worked veteran Omelchenko Petr Fedorovich (father-in author).
Therapist Lakhovsky Maria Isaakovna, pedyatr Prylutskaya Maria Solomonovna, dentists Dubenko, Bidery doctors - specialists were of the highest caliber, has earned the respect and authority among the residents of the city and region.
Well-deserved reputation in the city used by teachers: Director of Working Youth School Levin Boris Abramovich, Russian language teacher Morgulis Etya Ovseevna, Itkina teacher Svetlana, teacher of foreign languages Barenboim (Isakov) Clara G., a teacher of elementary grades Elboym Lyubov, Chemistry teacher Inna Y. Galperin, kindergarten teachers Barenboim Sophia Naumovna, Stavetskaya Lyudmila Arkadievna.
Head of the propaganda department of the Communist Party District Committee were: Morgulis Gregory Nusimovich, Barenboim Alexander G.; the head of the printing house - Creamer Shelishch; glavbwxom raybıtkombïnata , Secretary of his party organization Omelchenko Polina Isaakovna (mother-in-law of the author). Not only in the regional center, but in all the villages we knew Uncle Misha (Michael Loeb), Local photographer bytkombinata. He was famous for his knowledge, affability and kindness, regardless of age, to every, who had photographed. IN 1960 - 1970-ies famous many Jews worked not only on different positions in the government, health, educational, cultural institutions, trade, worked but simple workers. Until now, the older generation of workers remzavoda fondly remembered Fitters Fima Schwartzman. There was in the town and its environs is no refrigerator, no refrigeration unit, wherever talents of master - refrigeration Shelishch Kleiman.
The town is also famous for its milk factory, canning factory, Winding the power tool, farm "Ukraine" (Chairman of the twice Hero of Socialist Labor Tkachuk GI), which in the 60 years he represented the Soviet Union at the exhibition in the United States. On these and other companies also conscientiously worked Gorodok members of the Jewish community.
With anxiety and hope
Dramatically changed Jewish life in the town in the eighties of the XX century. Many Jewish families began to leave the town in Khmelnitsky, other cities, and in 90 years - in Israel, The United States and other countries. they say, the word "Jew" is translated as "God's chosen". Now we, Jewish, in what was once the Jewish town, It left a little more than ten people. And now the town, until recently one of the most industrialized in the region, It became over the years of independence of Ukraine, sadly, actually depressed.
Modern communications link us compatriots all over the world. They do not forget Township, place, where they were born, where he spent his childhood and adolescence, adulthood. And in the distant foreign countries people are interested in our news, empathize with our problems and, though occasionally, but come home.
New York - Hosh Gregory Ruvimovich Selim Vinkovetsky, Chicago - Vladimir Lakhovsky, Israel - Prilutskaya Maria Solomonovna, Mark Goldman and others. Since its inception in Khmel'nyts'kyi in 1999 by Charity Fund "Hesed Besht" greatly revived Jewish life in the area and in town including. Hesed, led by the skilful, competent, a worthy leader of the Town Hall Igor except charity concerned with the revival of national culture, traditions, religion. For nearly fifteen years, our very small community (Chairman Lew Raisa) It celebrates all the holidays of the Jewish calendar: Pesach, Hanukkah, Rosh Hashanah, purim. It has become a good tradition to gather together for a Shabbat table.
Regularly our small community visits Central Kiev synagogue lecturer Gleb Weisberg, which is highly professional provOdita talk about, what it means to be a Jew, the coming of the Messiah, the First and Second Temples, about the basics of Judaism and many other Jewish topics, sensibly and correctly answering at the same time to your questions.
Actively involved in our community society "Hesed Beshta" .Uspeshno took our miniature on Purim theater im.Staritskogo. Ahasuerus role played by Ilya Berkovich, evil anti-Semite Haman - Nicholas Sly, charming Esther - Raisa Omelchenko, Mordyekhaya - Lyudmila Stavyetskaya.
All these years we were together - and in joy, and in the above. We feel aid, care and support, the, that is so important and should be a small national community in such troubled everyday life.
In recent years, events have taken place in Ukraine, that many politicians called Revolution dignity. Among the dead on the Maidan in Kiev Hundreds of Heaven, we bow our heads before Joseph Schilling Jews from Drohobych, Alexander Scherbanyuk from Chernivtsi, Yevgeny Kotlyar Harkova.Est of the Jews, and among the participants ATO.
The famous Russian writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, is absolutely pro-Jewish people, I wrote: "The uniqueness of the Jewish people is undeniable, see all her. Chutche Jews, I think, There is no nation in the whole of humanity ".
On the photo - 1991 year. Jerusalem Temple Museum. Author of the publication of the model menorah, symbols the greatness of the Jewish people, the founder of which is his cousin - Chaim Odem. (cm. the Internet).
By the end of the twentieth century, the Jewish population of Ukraine decreased from 4 million to 103 thousand, and our town - with more than 3,3 tisyach the beginning of the century - to more than a dozen people at the beginning of the twenty-first. The duty of the present generations - remember predecessors, honor the ideals, in which they believed, keep monuments of history and material culture of the Jewish people of Ukraine andcontinue national life.
And I want to believe in the imminent coming of the Messiah, which will restore the kingdom of Israel destroyed, again gather the scattered Jews of the world in the Promised Land, establish an era of moral perfection of all mankind and the harmonious existence of all peoples - without wars, fear, hatred and intolerance.
Such is the brief history of the Jews of the Jewish shtetl - the shtetl town in Podolia.
I express my gratitude to the wording of the regional newspaper "News of Gorodotsky" for posting my material on its pages, as well as the regional specialist Klotsu Alexander - for their cooperation and assistance in the search for archival and other materials, as well as preparing them for publication.
Sources of information and literature
Mr. Barenboim. The ancient town and the Jews // Štetl. Literat.- Pub. collection. - Khmelnitsky: "Hesed Besht", 2013. - Vyp.6. - S.74-85
Horodochchyna tour: Guide - Khmelnitsky: "Bedryhiv edge", 2010 .- 160 from.
Protect Jews in Ukraine ATO - Podolsky 26 November 2015, Kiev .
Memory book "Memory Ukraine. Khmelnytsky region. Historical Memorial Edition - Khmelnitsky: skirts, 1995 year.- Tom 2.- 765 from.
Pam "Yatai Holocaust. Proceedings of the history of the Holocaust - Khmelnitsky: "Hesed Besht", 2004. – 156 from.
Sergei Nikolaevich Vinogradsky and Horodochchyna. Proceedings of the 2nd scientific conference of local history "Town - Historical Perspectives. Looking into the past and future, 13 September 2008 p. - Township: "Bedryhiv edge", 2008. – 266 from.
Solzhenitsyn A.200 years together (1795 – 1995) - Moscow: Russian Way, 2002. – 512 from.
area B. From summer 1493 th ... - Town: "Bedryhiv edge", 1999. - 64c.
Feller M. Ukrainoiudaika: the truth about the Ukrainian-Jewish otnosheniyah.10 September 2004goda.
radical gorodochchanin, ethnographer